Enough is Enough: A Student Affairs Perspective on Preparedness and Response to a Campus Shooting

Brian O. Hemphill and Brandi Hephner LaBanc, Editors


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Are your violence prevention and mental health efforts on campus coordinated?

Are all your campus professionals aware of the system for reporting information about students who may be in distress or at-risk for harming themselves or others?

Is the information reviewed and acted on?

Recent campus crises have highlighted that campus administrators will be judged by three things: What the campus was doing before the crisis, its immediate response during the crisis, and the follow-up after the crisis.

Born out of the call by Virginia Tech’s Zenobia Hikes for urgent action to stem the tide of societal violence, and the NASPA “Enough is Enough” campaign (www.EnoughisEnoughcampaign.org) that she inspired, this book provides guidance on how to be proactive in preventing violence, and be prepared to provide a comprehensive response to a crisis.

Enough is Enough presents first-hand accounts and experienced counsel from professionals who have lived through a violent incident, and continue to deal with its aftermath. They cover violence, suicide prevention, and mental health promotion in an integrated way, and offer a comprehensive plan to create a campus-wide system for collecting information about students at-risk for self-harm or violence toward others.

The authors describe how to develop university-wide emergency plans, using the National Incident Management System template and involving a wide spectrum of campus services; how to create crisis response teams and victim liaison programs; offer recommendations about communication and the management of information; and address institutionally-appropriate and sensitive ways to achieve healing and recovery.

The book is addressed to administrators, student affairs, services and mental health professionals, and counselors, on all the nation’s campuses, elementary through post-secondary.

Praise for Enough is Enough

Enough is Enough is an important work for college and university leaders struggling with the complex issues of violence prevention, emergency preparedness, critical incident response and community recovery and healing. Although written from a student affairs perspective, it contains powerful lessons for all campus administrators. Enough is Enough should be mandatory reading for everyone at the academy involved in keeping the campus community safe!” —Steven J. Healy, Managing Partner, Margolis, Healy & Associates, and Past President, International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators

“Excellent addition to the higher education crisis management literature with its specific focus on campus violence. The combination of research data to inform the reader on the issues of campus violence as well as the practical tips and suggestions for preparing and responding to acts of campus violence makes this an extremely valuable tool for the profession.” —Eugene Zdziarski, vice president for student affairs and dean of students, Roanoke College





The Authors

1) Violence In The Shadow Of The Ivory Tower: Murder At The University 
The University as a Safe Haven; Single and Double Murders: Clery and Beyond Clery; Gender Factors; One- and Two-Person Killings on Campus That Had the Potential to Turn Into Mass-Casualty Situations; Multiple Murders; The Bell Tower Shooting at the University of Texas; The Dual Shootings at Virginia Tech; The Cole Hall Mass Shooting at Northern Illinois University; Some Comparative Aspects of the Three Mass-Murder-Status Killers; The Nexus Between Suicide and Homicide; Heterogeneity in Murder Cases Involving University Students; Rara Avis or Frequent Bird of Prey; Expressed and Actual Violence; The Scale of Violence; References

2) The Emotional Health And Violence Connection: Prevention, Intervention, and Resiliency
College Mental Health: A Growing Concern; Mental Health and Violence; Lessons from Virginia Tech: The Importance of Connection and Support; Emotional Health Safety Net: The Prescription for Prevention and Resiliency; The Emotional Health and Violence Connection: Taking Action on Your Campus; Conclusion; References

3) Managing the Whirlwind: Planning For and Responding to a Campus in Crisis
Introduction; Planning for and Responding to Crisis; Campus Emergency Operations Plan; Student Affairs Crisis Response Teams; Victim Liaisons; Coordination of Resources; Federal, State, and Local Resources; Campus- and Community-Based Resources; Additional Considerations; Threat Assessment Teams; Communication During Crises; Emergency Notification; Campus Responders; Media Relations; Crisis Hotlines; Information Management During Crises; Conclusion; References

4) Counseling During a Campus-Wide Crisis
Introduction; Immediate Response; Population Exposure Model; Immediate Psychological Responses to Trauma; On-Going Response; Mental Health Agencies; Day 2 Response; Campus Gatherings; Preparing Faculty and Staff to Return to Class; Classroom Outreach Program; Logistics; Psychological First Aid; Psycho-education; Long-Term Implications and Other Considerations; Psychological Effects of Trauma; Interagency Agreements; Ethical and Legal Considerations; Self Care; Conclusion; References

5) Essential Student Affairs Services In A Campus Crisis
Introduction; Defining and Developing Policy for Essential Services; Housing and Dining; Student Activities; International Student Services; Conclusion; References

6) Healing Your Community
Introduction; A University Provides Opportunities to Heal; A Community Expresses Itself; Local Community Support; Issues of Sensitivity; Fundraising as a Support Mechanism; From Grieving to Healing; Religion Debate; The Message; Long-Term Community Healing Initiative; Offices for On-Going Support; Conclusion; References;

7) The Provost’s Perspective: Campus-Wide Needs And Responses
Introduction; President and External Relations; Students and Their Families; Other Academic Leaders, Faculty, and Staff; Unique Organizational Qualities in Higher Education; that Shape and Influence Emergency Planning and Response; Decision-Making in Real Time During Crises; Academic Impact and Accommodations; Academic Calendar; Student Issues; Faculty Issues; Facilities Issues; The Provost and Student Affairs in the Event of a Shooting; Formative Feed-back, Reflections, and Unexpected Experiences; Emergency Operations Plans (EOP) and Emergency Operations Center (EOC); Communication; Volunteer Assistance; Financial and Legal Issues; Conclusion

8) Too Close To Home: The Reality Of Campus Shootings
Introduction; Reaction to the Virginia Tech Shootings; Shootings at Northern Illinois University; Graffiti Incidents Follow NIU Shootings; Conclusion; References

9) Incorporating Words Of Wisdom Into The Crisis Management Process
Introduction; Prevention and Mitigation; Words of Wisdom #1: Timely and Extensive Early Warning Systems Save Lives; Words of Wisdom #2: Information Sharing, Students’ Threat Assessment, and Early Behavioral Intervention Are Proactive Ways of Mitigating Student Violence; Crisis Planning and Preparation; Words of Wisdom #3: Create a Comprehensive Student Affairs Crisis Response Management Plan; Words of Wisdom #4: Intentional Selection of a Student Affairs Crisis Response Team Leader Is Critical; Words of Wisdom #5: “Practice Makes Perfect” Is Especially True for Dealing with Campus Crisis Situations; Words of Wisdom #6: Pre-Established Communication Messages Enhance Efficiency in Crisis Response; Words of Wisdom #7: Public Relations Plans and Message Controls Are Vital in Crisis Response; Immediate Response (First 24 Hours); Words of Wisdom #8: Response to a Campus Crisis Is Everyone’s Job.; Words of Wisdom #9: Reach Out to Those Who Have Experienced the Trenches.; Words of Wisdom #10: Develop Alternate Means of Communication.; Words of Wisdom #11: Police Officers’ EMT Training Saves Lives.; Words of Wisdom #12: Open Communication to the Students, Families, and Media Demonstrates Care; Response (First Seven Days); Words of Wisdom #13: Develop an Inter-Agency Agreement with Local and/or Regional Mental Health Providers; Words of Wisdom #14: Know and Utilize Campus Resources; Words of Wisdom #15: Liaisons Help Humanize Your Campus’ Bureaucracy During the Crisis Response; Campus Healing; Words of Wisdom #16: Self-Care During a Crisis Is More Difficult but More Vital; Words of Wisdom #17: Adding More Guns to College Campuses Is Not the Answer; Words of Wisdom #18: Enough is Enough; References.

Paperback | 2010 | 216 pages

ISBN 978-1-57922-443-1

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